Table of Contents Part 2–The Rise of Molecular Biology

Contents

PREFACE: SCIENCE AND THE SINGLE HUMAN.. i

SCIENCE AND THE SINGLE SPECIES. iv

Chapter 1: Why can’t scientistsspeakEnglish?. 1

The life blood of the sciences:
Hypotheses:Evidence,Logic,Falsification. 9

STATISTICS. 15

TESTIMONIALS. 16

IMPLICATIONS OF CONFUSING CORRELATION AND CAUSALITY. 21

BIAS IN SCIENCE. 21

Chapter 2: The tools of the trade: Experimental design. 23

Documentingthatlifedoesnotspontaneouslyarise. 23

Sir JohnSnowandCholera. 27

Goldberger. 29

THECONTROLEXPERIMENT. 35

Chapter 3: Controls and verification of experiments. 40

Thetoolsofthetrade:Controlexperiments. 43

The tools of the trade: Experimental Design. 44

Testingahypothesis. 45

Chapter 4: Hypotheses: The Origin of AIDS. 47

Polio and poplar trees. 47

HypothesesconcerningtheoriginofAIDS:Part1. 50

HypothesesconcerningtheoriginofAIDS:Part2. 53

HypothesesconcerningtheoriginofAIDS:Part3. 54

Chapter 5: Whereideas comefrom.. 57

Metaphors. 57

The importance of cell death. 57

The field takes off. 59

Origins of the field. 61

Science is international72

Chapter 6: Toolsofthetrade:Inventingtechnology. 74

Scale. 74

Warburg. 74

Isotopes. 76

Antibodies. 77

Recombinant DNA.. 80

Fluors. 82

Chapter 7: Mechanisms ofproteinsynthesis. 84

Ribosomes, mRNA, tRNA.. 84

The geneticcode. 85

Gene compositionand arrangement. 86

Chapter 8: The Riseof Molecular Biology. 89

A question of aesthetics. 89

DNA as the genetic material91

Reallycooltrick#1:Theevilscientistscreatea badbug.92

Reallycooltrick#2:Bacterialmilkshakes. 93

Really cool trick #3: Molecular billiards—the logic supporting DNA as the basis of genes  95

Reallycooltrick#4 Highspeedthrowing. 99

Reallycooltrick#5:Wordpuzzles. 101

Reallycooltrick#6:Kitchenchemistryandthebirthofmolecularbiology  104

Reallycooltrick#7:Talkingtomolecules. 106

Chapter 9: Geneticengineering. 111

Reallycooltrick#8:Tom Sawyer and the fence to whitewash. 112

Reallycooltrick#9:Intellectualtourism(observingthecrazies). 114

Reallycooltrick#10:RacingDNAs. 116

Reallycooltrick#11:Watchthemachinedothework.119

Reallycooltrick#12:Mr.PotatoHead. 121

Chapter 10. Conclusions–What is science,
and where do we go from here?. 124

The rules of evidence:124

Talk to boring people:125

Math skills are not necessarily displayed in academics.125

The ability to think abstractly is the ability to turn the abstract into the concrete.126

Precision in language.127

Many talents and many peoples create science.128

Unfettered curiosity and persistence pay off. 128

Science is amoral132

Science is a matter of aesthetics. 132

About the author. 134 (Endnote Page 1)

End Notes. 136 (Endnote Page 3)

 

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